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We have decided to discontinue the publication of preprints on our preprint server as of 1 March 2024. The publication culture within mathematics has changed so much due to the rise of repositories such as ArXiV ( that we are encouraging all institute members to make their preprints available there. An institute's repository in its previous form is, therefore, unnecessary. The preprints published to date will remain available here, but we will not add any new preprints here.

MiS Preprint

Process Dimension of Classical and Non-Commutative Processes

Wolfgang Löhr, Arleta Szkola and Nihat Ay


We treat observable operator models (OOM) and their non-commutative generalisation, which we call NC-OOMs. A natural characteristic of a stochastic process in the context of classical OOM theory is the process dimension. We investigate its properties within the more general formulation, which allows to consider process dimension as a measure of complexity of non-commutative processes: We prove lower semi-continuity, and derive an ergodic decomposition formula. Further, we obtain results on the close relationship between the canonical OOM and the concept of causal states which underlies the definition of statistical complexity. In particular, the topological statistical complexity, i.e. the logarithm of the number of causal states, turns out to be an upper bound to the logarithm of process dimension.


Related publications

2012 Repository Open Access
Wolfgang Löhr, Arleta Szkoła and Nihat Ay

Process dimension of classical and non-commutative processes

In: Open systems and information dynamics, 19 (2012) 1, p. 1250007