On the Topology of Steel
Polycrystalline materials, such as metals, are composed of crystal grains of varying size and shape. Typically, the occurring grain cells have the combinatorial types of 3-dimensional simple polytopes, and together they tile 3-dimensional space.
We will see that some of the occurring grain types are substantially more frequent than others - where the frequent types turn out to be "combinatorially round". Here, the classification of grain types gives us, as an application of combinatorial low-dimensional topology, a new starting point for a topological microstructure analysis of steel.